Observed annually on April 25th, DNA Day is a holiday that commemorates the discovery of the Nucleic acid double helix in 1953 and the completion of the Human Genome Project in April of 2003. It was first celebrated on April 25, 2003 as ordered by a proclamation of the House of Representatives and the U.S Senate. While it originally started as an American holiday, it is now celebrated by people all over the world.
A Quick History of DNA Research
During the 1940s and 1950s, scientists knew quite a lot about DNA but there was still gaps in their knowledge. They used the word gene to refer to the smallest unit of genetic information but they didn’t know what it looked like or how it copied this information from one generation to the next.
Oswald Avery showed in 1944 that DNA was the guiding force behind how pneumococcal bacteria transferred their hereditary information from one generation to generation but many scientists still believed that the structure of DNA was too simple and uniform to store enough genetic information to make a complete, complex living organism. They, therefore, reasoned that genetic material must consist of proteins.
In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick would find the double helix – which is a ladder-like structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This not only marked a milestone in the science of genetic research but would lead to the rise of modern molecular biology. This field of science would continue to grow over the next few decades and spawned a number of new scientific techniques and principles which included rapid gene sequencing, genetic engineering, and recombinant DNA research. And this was only the beginning.
The Human Genome Project
In 1990, the Human Genome Project began as a $3-billion dollar project that was founded by the National Institutes of Health and the U.S Department of Energy. With the help of geneticists from all over the world, this project was expected to take 15 years to map the entirety of the human genome.
However, a basic outline of the genome was finished in 2000 – due in part to rapid advancements in the field of genomics and the international cooperation among scientists and governments. On April 14th, 2003, the entire human genome was mapped.
History of DNA Day
On April 25, 2003, the first DNA Day was celebrated due to proclamations by both the U.S Senate and the House of Representatives. This declared celebration, however, was only supposed to be a one-time celebration and was supposed to be celebrated annually. Therefore it was only an official holiday in 2003.
Fortunately, National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) picked up the mantel of this holiday and has been organizing events around it from 2003 onward. This unofficial holiday is now celebrated all over the world.
Celebrating DNA Day
DNA Day events are held all over the United States and all over the world. These events often include scientific lectures and seminars on the field of genetics. While many of them have a more formal atmosphere about them, some of them do have somewhat of a party vibe to them.
If you’re a teacher or parent and want to celebrate this day with your children, then you can do fun DNA activities which include making 3-D double helix models, teach them how cells mutate or make DNA origami from construction paper.