1582: Due to the Gregorian Calendar being recently implemented, this day in 1582 is skipped in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.
1691: The Province of Massachusetts Bay is established thanks to an English Royal Charter.
1763: Aboriginal lands in North America – north and west of the Alleghenies – are closed to white settlements thanks to the Royal Proclamation of 1763 issued by King George III of the U.K.
1777: British forces are defeated at the Second Battle of Saratoga during the American Revolutionary War by American forces. This battle is also known as the Battle of Bemis Heights.
1780: Loyalist irregulars led by British Major Patrick Ferguson are defeated by American Patriot milita at the Battle of Kings Mountain during the American Revolutionary War.
1826: The first charted railway in the United States – the Granite Railway – starts operations on this day.
1864: The CSS Florida – a cruiser of the Confederate Navy – was illegally captured by Union vessel the USS Wachusett in what has become known as the Bahia Incident during the American Civil War.
1868: Opening day ceremonies are held by Cornell University.
1940: The McCollum Memo is issued on this day. Also known as the Eight Action Memo, this memor outlined ways the U.S could provoke a Japanese attack so the United States could be brought into the war in Europe.
1944: Jewish prisoners burn down Crematorium IV at the Birkenau Concentration Camp during World War II.
Famous Birthdays on October 7
Danish physicist and Nobel Prize laureate Niels Bohr is born in 1885.
American admiral and Medal of Honor recipient, Claud Ashton Jones in born in 1885.
American actor, director and screenwriter, Robert Z. Leonard is born in 1889.
South African archbishop, activist and Nobel Prize laureate, Desmond Tutu is born in 1931.
American singer-songwriter John Mellencamp is born in 1951.
4th President of Russia, Vladimir Putin is born in 1952.